Table of Illustrations
Table of Contents

Title Page
1 Introductory
2 Geological
3 Poetry of the Lakes
4 Description
5 The Aborigines
6 French Discovery and occupation
7 Story of La Salle and the Griffin
8 Struggle for Possession
9 Under English Rule
10 Beginnings of Lake Commerce
11 War of 1812
12 War of 1812, Continued
13 War of 1812, Concluded
14 Growth of Traffic
Commerce Through St. Mary's Canals
15 Early Navigation on Lake Superior
16 The Convention of 1847
17 A Half Century Ago
18 Lake Canals
19 Lake Canals, Concluded
20 Harbors
21 Lighthouses
22 Life Saving Service
23 Development of Lake Vessels
24 The Lake Carriers
25 The Sailor
26 Navigation
27 Lumber Traffic
28 Grain Traffic
29 Coal Traffic
30 Iron Ore and Iron Industries
31 Miscellaneous
33 CHRONOLOGY.The Beginnings
33 After the War of 1812
34 1821-1830
35 1831-1840
36 1841-1850
37 1851-1860
38 1861-1870
39 1871-1880
40 1881-1890
41 1891-1898
42 List of Lake Vessels
Table of Illustrations
1 Fig. 1. Map showing Course of the Ancient St. Lawrence and its Tributaries
2 Fig. 2. Map of Warren Water Bounded by Forest Beach, and its Successors. Surveyed shores represented by solid lines; partly surveyed, by broken lines; modern lakes, by dotted lines.
3 Fig. 3. Map of the Early Lakes. Broken shading represents extension of the early lake epoch; solid shading, a lower stage of Iroquois Gulf before the birth of Lake Ontario; modern lakes, by dotted lines.
4 The Cove, Presque Isle
5 The Grand Portal
6 In Grand Portal -- Pictured Rocks
7 A Bit of Surf
8 Arch Rock, Presque Isle
9 Cave of the Winds, Pictured Rocks from the Interior
10 Niagara Falls
11 Niagara Falls. Facsimile of first engraving. From Hennepin's "New Discovery, " published in 1697
12 Terrapin Tower. (Built at Niagara Falls in 1833, destroyed in 1873.)
13 Cross-Section of Great Lakes
14 Legend of Niagara Falls: The Maiden's Sacrifice
15 Legend of Niagara Falls: The Maid of the Mist
16 Building of the Griffin. (Hennepin, 1704) Cassier's Magazine
17 The Griffin From an old cut.
18 The French Fleet on the St. Lawrence and Lake Ontario 1758-60. The Marquise de Vaudrueil. Le Victort. La Huzalt. La Louise. The French Fleet -- Lake Ontario, 1757 -- from a map in British Museum
19 The English Fleet on the St. Lawrence and Lake Ontario 1758-60. The Montcalm. Le George (The George). Les Evive (The Lively) *Lactagnuence La Vigilant (The Vigilant) L'Ontario (The Ontario) * Untranslateable -- printed as written. The English Fleet -- Lake Ontario, 1757 -- from a map in British Museum
20 Diagram 1. Battle of Lake Erie
21 Diagram 2. Battle of Lake Erie
22 Diagram 3. Battle of Lake Erie
23 Steel Canal Boats on Erie Canal.
24 The Welland Canal, between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie
25 American Lock -- Sault Ste. Marie
26 Filling American Lock -- Sault Ste. Marie
27 New Administration Building. For the use of the officials of the U. S. canal and locks at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
28 Scene at the American Canal. Three tugs raising the water in the lock, by the working of their wheels, to lift a barge too deeply loaded.
29 Night Scene at Ballard's Reef, Detroit River. A narrow channel of about 17 ½ feet depth at this point in the Detroit river, dug through solid rock and boulders in most parts, is lighted by three gas buoys. Over 30,690,572 tons of cargo was carried by this point in 1897.
30 Lake Ontario Lighthouse -- Braddock's Point
31 Shooting the Rapids in St. Mary's River
32 Steamboat Michigan. Built at Detroit, Mich., in 1833. Length 156 feet; two beam engines of 80 horse power each. From "American Steam Vessels" Copyright 1895, by Smith & Stanton
33 Steamboat Western World. Built at Buffalo in 1854. Length 348 feet; beam 45 feet; engines vertical beam, 1,500 horse power; 2,002 tons; Western World and Plymouth Rock, duplicates, two of the finest side-wheel steamers ever built on the lakes; each cost $250,000; hull timbers diagonally braced with iron; four water tight compartments; ran only a few years. From "American Steam Vessels," Copyright 1895 by Smith & Stanton.
34 The First Screw Steamer, Propeller Vandalia
35 Passenger Steamer North West
36 Steamer Corona
37 Passenger Steamer City of Buffalo
38 Propeller Merchant. First iron propeller on Great Lakes. Built at Buffalo in 1862; length 200 feet; beam 29 feet; tonnage 861; wrecked at Racine, 1875. From "American Steam Vessels" Copyright 1895, by Smith & Stanton
39 Steel Barge No. 103
40 Steel Car Ferry Pere Marquette. Capacity 30 Loaded Freight Cars.
41 City of Collingwood
42 Rosedale
43 Majestic
44 United Empire
45 Superior City -- Before Launching. First vessel launched from the Lorain shipyard of the Cleveland Ship Building Co.
46 Superior City -- After Launching. First vessel launched from the Lorain shipyard of the Cleveland Ship Building Co.
47 Side-wheel Steamer Ontario
48 Largest Vessel on the Lakes -- Propeller Samuel F. B. Morse
49 After a Trip late in the Fall
50 Car Ferry Steamer Sainte Marie. Passing through 36 inches of ice.
51 The Older Type of Schooners, Grain Carriers
52 Mouth of the Detroit River from Bois Blanc Island
53 Modern Steel Grain Elevator at Buffalo
54 Coal Unloader at Ashtabula
55 Iron Ore Shipping Docks, Duluth, Minn. Length of each 2,304 feet; total capacity 100,000 tons; time required to load 5,000 tons of ore into a vessel, one hour.
56 Steamer Unloading at Conneaut, Ohio. This plant is used for unloading from the steamer and loading directly into the cars.
57 Whaleback Barge unloading under Conveyor. The tramways are 309 feet long, and this plant is used for storage as well as unloading into cars.
58 A whaleback tow
59 Steamboat Walk-in-the-Water. First steam vessel on Lake Erie. Built at Black Rock, N. Y., 1818; wrecked 1821. From "American Steam Vessels" Copyright 1895. Smith & Stanton.
60 Wrecking of the Walk-in-the-Water, November 1, 1821. From an oil painting by Mr. Matthies, made for Thomas and Mary A. W. Palmer, of Detroit, who were on the boat at the time of the disaster, returning home from their wedding trip. The wreck occurred just above the old lighthouse, or nearly opposite the foot of Main Street, Buffalo before daylight. Copy of painting obtained from C. M. Burton, Detroit.
61 Steamboat Thomas Jefferson. Built at Erie, Pa., in 1834. Crosshead engine, 150 horse power, placed in the steamboat Louisiana in 1846, and lost with her in 1858. From "American Steam Vessels." copyright 1895 by Smith & Stanton.
62 Steamer Caroline, burned and sent over Niagara Falls in 1837. Cassier's Magazine
63 Passenger Steamboat Empire. Built at Cleveland, O., in 1844. First steamboat in the United States to measure over 1,000 tons, and when she came out was 200 tons larger than any other steam vessel in the world; length over all 260 feet; engines inclined low pressure, below deck; 600 horse power; later converted into propeller. From "American Steam Vessels." Copyright 1895, by Smith & Stanton.
64 Propeller Princeton. Built at Perrysburgh, O., in 1845. First propeller on Great Lakes that had an upper cabin; two twin screw engines; 24-inch cylinder by 24-inches stroke. From "American Steam Vessels." copyright 1895, by Smith & Stanton.
65 Steamboat Indiana. Built at Toledo, O., in 1841. Ran between Toledo and Buffalo until burned at Conneaut, O., in 1848. From "American Steam Vessels." Copyright 1895, by Smith & Stanton.
66 Steamboat Atlantic. Built at Newport, Mich., in 1848. Length 267 feet; 1,155 tons; in her day unsurpassed in elegance and convenience; in 1852 run down off Long Point, by propeller Ogdensburg, and sunk; 150 lives lost. From "American Steam Vessels," Copyright 1895, by Smith & Stanton.
67 Steamboat Mississippi. Built at Buffalo, N. Y., in 1853. A floating palace; length 335 feet; tonnage 1,829; one beam engine, 82-inch cylinder, 12-feet stroke; three boilers, each 50 feet long by 11 feet diamete; dismantled in 1863, hull remodeled into a dry dock.
68 Steamer Lady Elgin. Wrecked off Winnetka, September 8, 1860, by collision with schooner Augusta. 400 passengers on board -- only 98 saved. From a photograph taken as the steamer lay in the Chicago river, between Clark and La Salle streets, September 7, 1860, the day before the disaster. Copy obtained from Capt. James S. Dunham, Chicago.
69 Steamboat North Star. Built at Cleveland in 1854. Length 274 feet; 1,106 tons; splendidly furnished for Lake Superior line; speed 16 miles an hour; burned at Cleveland in 1862. From "American Steam Vessels." copyright 1895, by Smith & Stnton.
70 Steamboat Western Metropolis. Built at Buffalo in 1856. Length 340 feet; tonnage 1,860; one beam engine, cylinder 76 inches diameter; 12 feet stroke; easily made 21 miles an hour between Buffalo and Toledo; made a bark in 1862, carrying 5,000 yards of canvas, and never beaten by any sail craft; lost on lake Michigan in 1864. From "American Steam Vessels." Copyright 1895, by Smith & Stanton.
71 Steamer Milwaukee. Built at Buffalo in 1859. Length 247 feet; tonnage 1,100; wrecked at Grand Haven, Mich., in 1868. From "American Steam Vessels." copyright 1895, by Smith & Stanton.
72 Propeller Ironsides. Built at Cleveland, O., in 1864. Length over 231 feet; tonnage 1,123; an elegant passenger propeller built for the Lake Superior line; transferred to Lake Michigan and lost at Grand Haven in 1873 with twenty-four lives.
73 Arrival of whaleback at Cleveland in the Fall.
74 Walebacks in winter quarters at West Superior
75 The Western Reserve
76 Propeller Chicora. Built at Detroit in 1892. Foundered during a gale in Lake Michigan, January 21, 1895; all on board perished. From "American Steam Vessels." Copyright 1895, by Smith & Stanton.
77 Wreck Scenes. Propeller St. Magnus; [lower left] A Whaleback collision;. [center] Propeller Corsica after a collision; St. Magnus keeled over at Cleveland; [lower right] Schooner Samana on the beach.
78 Wrecking Scene on Lake Michigan. Propeller Keystone and consort J. G. Masten, ashore on Twin River Point, near Two Rivers, Wis. A wrecking tug of Sturgeon Bay released the propeller promptly. The schooner slid off into deep water, foundering very quickly.
79 Night scene on Lake Erie
80 Whaleback passenger steamer Christopher Columbus
81 Steel steamer S. S. Curry
82 Schooner Dart on beach near Manitowoc Harbor, Lake Michigan.
83 Steel whaleback steamer John Ericsson.
84 Detroit Ferry Boat
85 Schooner Lookout ashore and abandoned on Two Rivers Point.
86 Steel steamer Penobscot.
87 Steel steamer Victory
88 Steamer Virginia
89 Steel steamer Yuma

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Volume II

Some of the transcription work was also done by Brendon Baillod, who maintains an excellent guide to Great Lakes Shipwreck Research.