The marine interests of Chicago, at the time of the fire of 1871, were in an extremely flourishing condition, and although the Custom-house records were destroyed, an accurate estimate of the business done that year has been made. This shows 1871 as comparing favorably with all preceding years, as also with those succeeding, there having been, down to 1885, only one year when a larger number of vessels was owned in the district, and two years in which the tonnage has been larger. Navigation opened in 1871 on April 3, the earliest date then known in the history of the port. By December, 12,330 vessels, with 3,096,101 tonnage had arrived, and 12,312, with tonnage of 3,082,235, had cleared; vessels with a sail capacity of 2,406,300 tons, and steam capacity of 394,000 tons laying up at this port for the winter. The number of vessels owned in the district was 650, with tonnage aggregating 95,395.95, divided among 84 steam vessels, 333 sail vessels, and 233 canal-boats and barges. During the ensuing fourteen years, numerous transfers of vessels were made to other districts, so that the ownership list was reduced nearly fifty per cent. This is shown in the following table:
In this table, a decrease is shown in the number and tonnage of vessels owned in Chicago in 1884, as compared with 1871, of 278 vessels and 34,454.39 tonnage ; although, during the intervening period, there had been built in this district 126 vessels, with a tonnage of 13,025.45. Of these, there were 32 schooners, 23 propellers, 21 steam canal-boats, 27 tug-propellers, twelve tugs, one scow schooner, three steamers, and one sloop-yacht. Whatever increase in the tonnage these additions to the marine made, was more than offset by the loss of vessels from this port by burning and sinking, of which there were 119 schooners, two propellers, one scow, two tugs, one steam canal-boat, one steamer, one sloop, five brigs and five barks, a total of 137 vessels with 27,413.91 tonnage. Following is a record by years of the ships built and lost, with their tonnage :
The largest tonnage represented was in 1873, when ten large schooners were built; and the largest number constructed in one year was in 1882, when ten tug-propellers were built. In 1883, the list of marine disasters exceeded that of any year since 1872, and one steamer and more tug-propellers than had been built in 1882, were wrecked and destroyed, at a loss of $191,000, with an insurance of $129,100. Fifty persons lost their lives by the destruction of the vessels represented.
1871, April 3 ; 1872, April 28 ; 1873, May 1; 1874, April 29; 1875, April 28; 1876, April 28; 1877, April 20; 1878, March 14; 1879, April 23; 1880, April 5; 1881, May 4; 1882, April 5; 1883, April 28; 1884, April 24.
During the same period, inclusive of 1871, the amount of annual collections from tonnage dues, clearances and enrollment fees, penalties and fines have not increased materially. For 1873 and 1874 the average was $36,005.13 as against $21,051.56 for 1884. The collections for the ten years were --
A detailed statement of the marine at the end of 1884 shows, in addition to the figures given in preceding statements and tables, a loss in wrecks and collisions among vessels hailing from this port, of $57,800 for the year, with $43,200 insurance, divided among the following classes: 27 screw steamers, tonnage 7,019.82; 4 paddle steamers, tonnage 1,379.97; 28 steam canal-boats, tonnage 2,033.60; 4 steam yachts, under five tons, tonnage 5.49; 227 schooners, tonnage 49,765.08; 5 sail yachts, tonnage 13.17. Of the 63 vessels clearing for foreign ports and 57 vessels arriving from foreign ports, during 1884, the tonnage represented was 21,552 and 19,725 respectively. Following is a table showing the arrivals and clearances of vessels at this port, with their tonnage, from 1871 to 1884:
THE CHICAGO DREDGING AND DOCK COMPANY was incorporated in 1877, with a capital stock of $85,000. Charles S. Crane is president, Daniel Booth, vice-president, Frank R. Crane, secretary, William H. Woodbury, treasurer, and Fred Davis, superintendent. The company is made up of several others, Mr. Crane having bought the effects of the plant of the estate in bankruptcy of Fox & Howard, who had been in the business from fifteen to twenty years, and one or two others, combining them, with his own, into one company, which was incorporated. The company does a general business as contractors, in dredging, building docks, piers and bridges, in the lakes and rivers of the north and west. It owns and operates seven dredging machines, five pile-drivers and three tug boats, with all the machinery necessary for doing their work and carrying out their contracts. It has at times over five hundred men in its employ, and its business often exceeds $500,000 per annum.
CHARLES S. CRANE, president of the Chicago Dredging and Dock Company, was born at Paterson, N. J., on March 21, 1834, and is the son of Timothy B. and Marian (Ryerson) Crane. After completing his studies in the schools of his native town, he came to Chicago, where he has resided since 1855. He engaged in business with his brother, in brass manufacturing, under the firm name of R. T. Crane & Brother and the next year they added the manufacture of iron pipes to the business. In 1859, they built and operated a foundry in connection with their other work. In 1865, they commenced the manufacture of wrought-iron pipes, the first made west of Pittsburgh, Penn., and the same year they erected works for the manufacture of malleable iron. About this time, they organized as a stock company and changed the name to the Northwestern Manufacturing Company, which they retained until 1872, when they again changed the name to The Crane Brothers Manufacturing Company, by which title it is still known. In 1871, Mr. Crane assisted in the organization of the Wright & Lawther Oil and Lead Manufacturing Company, and became its vice-president. In January, 1885, he became its president. He engaged in the dock and dredging business, as a general contractor, in 1873, carrying it on with his other interests, until the present company was incorporated. Mr. Crane was married on September 23, 1857, to Miss Eliza Jane Beyea, of Paterson, N.J.; they have two children--Frank R. and Charles B. He is a member of Cleveland Lodge, No. 211, A.F. &A M.; of Washington Chapter, No. 43, R.A.M.; of Siloam Council, No. 53, R.& S.M ; of Chicago Commandery, No. 19, K.T.; and of Oriental Consistory, S.P.R.S. 32°. He has taken the ninety-six degrees of the Egyptian Rite of Memphis, and is a member of the conclave of the Knights of the Red Cross of Rome and Constantine.
DANIEL BOOTH, vice-president of the Chicago Dredging and Dock Company, was born at Staffordshire, England, on December 31, 1817. He went to work on a farm when he was twelve years old, and remained there six years, his wages for the first year being one pound and a shilling. After completing his sixth year on the farm, he was engaged in the work of grading on railroads for four years. He then commenced taking sub-contracts. In 1841, he went to France, where he worked on a sub-contract about two years, under Mr. Brussey, one of the most noted and successful contractors of the world. In 1843, he came to Chicago, and soon afterward purchased a farm of eighty acres in Jefferson township, about nine miles from Chicago, for $2.50 per acre; which he still owns, having added to it, until he has now over four hundred acres, finely improved. In connection with his farm work, he took a contract to grade a portion of the North-Western Railroad, when it was first built. In 1882, he was elected vice-president of the Chicago Dredging and Dock Company, which position he still holds. He took an active part in the organization of the C. O. D. Live Stock Company of Montana, in 1883, which has a capital stock of $100,000, and he is one of its directors. He was a political officer of the town of Jefferson for over forty years, holding every office, with the exception of that of collector and constable. He was supervisor of that town when Levi D. Boone was mayor of Chicago, and served for twenty-eight years as justice of the peace, his last term expiring in April, 1885; his first commission was conferred by Governor Bissell. He was a member of the XXVIIIth General Assembly, for the Seventh Senatorial District. Mr. Booth was married in August, 1842, to Henrietta Chappel, of Yorkshire, England, at Poessy, France. They have nine children,--Priscilla, Josephine, Richard, Daniel, Henrietta, Theresa, Mary, James and Charles.
FRED DAVIS, superintendent of the Chicago Dredging and Dock Company, was born at Gorham, Maine, on July 14, 1839, and is the son of Josiah and Eunice (Frost) Davis. Is a civil engineer. In 1854, he went to New York City and was employed in the shipping trade for some time, both in the interests of others and on his own account. He came to Chicago in 1867, and formed a partnership with J. T. Hayden, under the firm name of J. T. Hayden & Co. They did a general contracting and dredging business on the lakes and rivers, with offices at Chicago and Buffalo. The name of the firm was changed, in 1870, to Hayden, Carkin & Company, and existed until 1875, when they sold out the entire interest. Soon after this, Mr. Davis went to Russia, where he was employed in dredging the St. Petersburgh and Cronstadt Canal, remaining there for several years. In 1881, he returned to Chicago and accepted the position of superintendent and manager of the Chicago Dredging and Dock Company, which office he now occupies.
FRANK R. CRANE, secretary of the Chicago Dredging and Dock Company, is the son of Charles S. and Eliza Jane (Beyea) Crane, and was born on May 28, 1862. He received his education in the public schools and the Metropolitan Business College, of Chicago. In 1882, he commenced work for the Chicago Dredging and Dock Company, and in 1884, was elected secretary thereof.
WILLIAM H. WOODBURY, treasurer of the Chicago Dredging and Dock Company, was born at Locke, Cayuga Co., N. Y., on January 22, 1832, and is the son of Luther and Catharine M. (Harbach) Woodbury. In 1850, he went to Sutton, Mass., where he worked on a farm about four years, when he came to Chicago and engaged in the grocery trade on his own account, which he followed with success until 1871. He was afterward employed by Charles S. Crane in charge of the department of dredging and dock-building, where he remained until the present company was established, then becoming its treasurer. Mr. Woodbury was married in November, 1871, to Miss Stella M. Beam, of Chicago; they have two children, William H. and Stella M.
GEORGE B. CARPENTER & Co., at the corner of South Water Street and Fifth Avenue, are manufacturers and wholesale dealers in sundries for mill, railway and vessel use, of marine hardware, wire, rope, blocks, twines and cordage, and are also ship-chandlers and sail-makers. The business of this house was established by George A. Robb, in 1840, only three years after the incorporation of Chicago as a city. In 1845, Mr. Payson was admitted to the firm and the name was changed to Payson & Robb. Mr. Payson retired in 1850, and Gilbert Hubbard entered the firm, the style of which was then made Hubbard & Robb. After the death of Mr. Robb, in 1857, George B. Carpenter became a partner in the firm, and the name became Gilbert Hubbard & Co. This style was continued during twenty-four years, until Mr. Hubbard's death, in 1881, and in the course of those years the house advanced to its present position in the trade, and the name became a familiar one throughout the West. On January 1, 1882, the business passed into the hands of the present firm, who had been Mr. Hubbard's associates for a quarter of a century, and George B. Carpenter & Co. have since cared for the trade, upon the same principles that characterized the old establishment. From 1859, until the great fire of 1871, the concern occupied the large iron-front building at Nos. 205-207 South Water Street, immediately opposite their present location. It was burned to the ground the night of October 9 of that memorable year, but before the ruins were yet cold, a tent was erected and Gilbert Hubbard & Co. resumed business. The tent answered the purpose a few days, until more commodious quarters were fitted-up from the ruins of an old grain-house at Nos. 14-16 Market Street, which were occupied in November following the fire. In April, 1872, the business was removed to a capacious three-story building, one of the largest and best erected after the fire, located at Nos. 226-32 South Water Street. In 1874, the erection of the present building was begun, and a year later was -completed and occupied. It is situated on the northeast corner of South Water Street and Fifth Avenue, and is five stories in height and one of the best business structures on the street. The upper story is used as a general storage room. The sail loft is on the fourth floor and is one of the best and largest apartments of the kind in the country. The fourth floor is devoted principally to manufacturing purposes, and presents at all times a busy scene, a large number of skilled mechanics being employed ; on the second story is stored a large variety of the lighter class of goods. The offices and general sales-rooms are on the first floor. In the cellar, a light, airy and perfectly dry apartment, are stored quantities of heavy goods.
George B. Carpenter came to Chicago with his father in 1850, and received his education in the "St. Mary's of the Lake" Academy, destroyed by the fire. His father, Benjamin C. Carpenter, was prominently connected with the public affairs of the city, both political and commercial. He was the first president of the Board of Public" Works, and was a member of the old firm of Marsh & Carpenter, who were among the early packers in the city. His death occurred in 1881. Mr. Carpenter entered the present firm in his twenty-third year. Of life he has made a success, and is justly honored and respected by the thousands who have formed his acquaintance during his extensive business career.
GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS CLAUSSENIUS, son of Henry Claus-senius, the Austro-Hungarian consul, was born in New York City, on March 22, 1854, and came with his parents to Chicago at an early age. His education comprised a thorough school study, terminating, temporarily, with a general commercial course at Dyhrenfurth's College in this city. In 1870, he went to Europe, and attended Professor Kornemann's celebrated classical schools in Germany and France, the summer sessions of the institution being held at Coburg, and the winters at Paris. He devoted two years to study and travel combined, visiting Switzerland and Northern Italy, and, returning to Chicago, entered his father's banking house. He was manager of the institution until 1883, a term of twelve years, when he went into the general ocean steamship passage and railroad ticket business, at No. 76 LaSalle Street, with C. Brinkmann, who has since left the firm. He was married on February 2, 1878, to Miss Lena T. Brachvogel, the daughter of Charles Brachvogel, a prominent citizen of Chicago. They have three children, named Lillie, Minnie and Carl. Mr. Claussenius is a prominent member of the Germania Maennerchor, the Chicago Bowling Club and the Royal Arcanum, in which organizations he has held many important positions, from time to time. He is a fine baritone singer, is actively interested in several well-known quartettes, and is the treasurer of the village of Morgan Park, where he resides.
JOHN ESTCOURT EARLE, the general western manager of the Anchor ocean steamship line, is the single agent in Chicago who signs a through bill of lading from the West direct to British ports, and has acted in that capacity since May 1, 1876. He was born while his parents, Thomas and Henrietta Earle, were en route from France to England on a pleasure tour, on February 28, 1842, on the Island of Jersey in the English Channel, and received his early education at his ancestral home at Gloucester, later completing his studies at Worcester and Bristol. He came to New York in 1864, the ensuing year engaging with Austin, Baldwin & Co., and being appointed their superintendent in 1867. Six years later, he was sent to Chicago as western manager, which position he filled until 1876, when he took charge of the Anchor Line agency, with offices first at No. 96 Washington Street, and more recently at No. 48 Clark Street. Mr. Earle was badly injured in the terrible railroad accident which occurred at Ashtabula, Ohio, on December 29, 1876, in which the lives of many prominent Chicagoans were lost. He was the only passenger in the smoking coach who was not killed, and for a time was himself reported dead, being compelled to remain near the scene of his injuries for sixteen days in a critical condition. The line he represents, which, rendered homeless by the great fire, was selling tickets in an up-town basement in 1871, has had an extraordinary progress under his management. Mr. Earle was married on June 1, 1880, and has three children ; Myra Mary, Henrietta Kate and Thomas Estcourt.
ALFRED MORTENSEN was appointed general western agent of the Thingvalla ocean steamship line, in 1881. At that time the company owned one steamer and, although a direct line between Scandinavia and New York, operated on a somewhat limited scale. From that date, the success of the Thingvalla line was almost phenomenal. Five new steamers were built in four years, and the Chicago agency, in 1884, sent by that route no less than five thousand passengers. Mr. Mortensen was among the first to inaugurate ocean excursions, sending ten parties to Europe in three years, in one instance six hundred and eleven passengers sailing in one steamer. This enterprise on Mr. Mortensen's part, which, in 1885, was rewarded by the general agency of the Compagnie Generale Transatlantique, was characteristic of his previous busy career. He was born near Copenhagen, Denmark, in April, 1843, and is the son of Knud and Eliza Mortensen. Having received his education at his native place, he left home at the age of seventeen and came to America. His first employment was as a laborer under General John and Daniel Caseman, railroad contractors, then engaged in the construction of the Philadelphia and Erie line. In a short time he was made foreman, and directed the building of the road from Lockhaven to Corry, Penn. At its completion, he accompanied the contractors to the Far West, and superintended the construction of the Union Pacific from its inception, in 1864, to the laying of the last rail three years later. He came to Chicago in 1867, engaging in a general steamship and railroad ticket business, and also establishing the European and other small hotels, near the great emigrant center in North Chicago, which property, together with his present place of business, he now owns. Mr. Mortensen is engaged exclusively in the steamship agency business, controlling the entire western district for two direct lines to Europe, with his offices at No. 126 Kinzie and No. 101 Clark Street. He was married in 1872, to Miss Anna Bothman, and has one child, a son ten years of age. Mr. Mortensen resides at Lake View, where he recently purchased the residence of ex-Postmaster Palmer for $30,000.
ANTON BOENERT, general western agent of the Royal Netherlands Mail Line (Rotterdam Line), was born in Eastern Prussia, on April 4, 1848. His father and mother, Peter and Magdalena Boenert, were land-owners in his native town, where he received an education under private tutorship for the purpose of entering the theological profession; but, after having devoted great attention to the study in that direction, changed his mind and went into the mercantile business. From 1868 to 1871, he devoted his time to the legal profession, and during the last year in that period, filled an administrative position, as secretary to the executive board of the University of Kiel, Holstein. Two months before the great fire of 1871, Mr, Boenert arrived in Chicago, and became employed in the German and Austrian consulates. He was thus engaged until 1876, when he made a trip to Europe to settle some private affairs and inheritances. On returning to this city, he entered into the steamship, banking and real-estate business, at No. 95 Fifth Avenue. Five years later, he removed to 119 East Randolph Street, where he became city passenger agent for the Red Star and American Steamship lines, which position he abandoned in 1881, and then assumed the General Western Agency of the Amsterdam Line, which, after two years' existence, consolidated with the Royal Netherlands Mail Line (Rotterdam Line). He was also general agent of the Trieste-American Steamship Line, plying between New York and the Mediterranean ports, but this line, on account of great opposition and lack of other means, experienced but a short existence. Mr. Boenert was married in July, 1871, to Miss Augusta Hellriegel; they have two children,--Arthur and Meta. Mr. Boenert belongs to several societies; has been treasurer for several years of the Platt-Deutsche Verein von Chicago, and occupies a high social and business position in the community.
NILS ANDERSON, general western agent of the White Star Line, has filled that important position of responsibility and trust since 1883, and was a resident of Chicago for sixteen years anterior to that date. Mr. Anderson is a native of Sweden and was born in the city of Lund, in 1837. He received the rudiments of a thorough practical education in his native city, and later entered the railroad schools of the Government, to prepare for a career as a railway official. After his graduation he was appointed bookkeeper in this line of service and, later, traveling inspector, which position he filled for six years. In 1864, Mr. Anderson came to America, and for three years was a resident of New York City. In 1867, he came to Chicago and took up a permanent residence here. It was four years later that the White Star Line established its first agency in Chicago. The office of the company was located on Wabash Avenue, and was burned out by the fire of 1871. It was re-established on Market Street, later on Clark Street, then at 120 Randolph Street, and finally was removed to its present location, No. 48 Clark Street, in 1876. When Mr. Anderson first came to Chicago he became identified with the Swedish American, a newspaper published in this city. Soon afterward, in 1869, he went with the Inman Line, and for fifteen years was chief clerk in the office of its western agency. At the same time, from 1877 to September 1, 1884, he published the newspaper named. In 1883, Alfred Lagergren, the old-time agent of the White Star Line,--one of the most popular and successful steamship lines between New York and Liverpool,-- returned to Sweden, and Mr. Anderson was appointed general western agent of the company. In this capacity, as in his business as a publisher, he has shown fine executive ability, intelligence and integrity, and is regarded as a progressive and representative man in the line of commercial interest in which he is engaged. His mother is now a resident of this city and his brother Christian Anderson is an inspector of the Swedish Government Railroad at Flen, near Stockholm, Sweden. Mr. Anderson was married in this city, in 1874, to Miss Emily Glock, a native of Boston, Mass. They have two children, Eva Ellen and Anna Sophia. Mr. Anderson is prominently identified with the social and literary associations of the Swedish people in Chicago, and, during 1868-69, was secretary of the Svea Society.
THE DUNHAM TOWING & WRECKING COMPANY was the outgrowth of Mr. Dunham's interest in the tug business, in the spring of 1885. The business of the company comprises towing vessels in and out of the Chicago harbor, and the raising of sunken crafts, etc. Their pumps are used for various purposes, the Worthington 14-inch pump being employed for water only; the 12-inch rotary for water and all kinds of grain; the 8-inch centrifugal, for water, grain and all kinds of coal not larger than seven inches in diameter; the 4-inch wrecking and fire pump, on board of the tug "Mosher," for general work. The tugs controlled by this company are the "Morford," "A. Mosher," G. W. Gardner," "A. Miller," "R. Dunham," "J. C. Ingram," "Uncle Sam" and "F. Thieldeke."
J. S. DUNHAM, president of the Dunham Towing and Wrecking Company, was born at Balston Spa, Saratoga Co., N. Y., on January 31, 1837, and is the son of James and Rebecca (Sears) Dunham. When he was fourteen years old, he began marine life as a cook on a vessel on the Hudson River. The wages paid for that service in those days were three dollars a month. In 1854, Mr. Dunham, after serving in various capacities, determined to come West. He landed in Chicago, and for the succeeding three years was engaged in the towing line. In 1857, he took the tugs "G. Mosher" and "A. C. Gunnison" from Chicago to New Orleans, La., through the Illinois and Michigan Canal, and down the Mississippi River ; the first crafts of that description that made the trip at that time. He ran them in that vicinity until 1861, when the War of the Rebellion began. The Confederates confiscated the "Mosher," which afterwards was instrumental in causing the flagship of Admiral Farragut, the "Hartford," considerable trouble by towing a fire-raft up to that vessel, which set her afire shortly after she had passed the forts below New Orleans. Captain Dunham left New Orleans with the "Gunnison" for Mobile, Ala. A short time after his arrival he conveyed a company of Confederates from that point to Fort Morgan, at the entrance of Mobile Bay, when they occupied the fortifications. From Mobile he went to Pensacola, Fla., and was there arrested as being a Northern man (in spite of the aid he had rendered the South), and his remaining tug confiscated. He was sent North, and arrived in Troy, N. Y., in May, 1861. The "Gunnison" ran between the ground opposite Fort Pickens, held by Confederate soldiers, and Pensacola, until Fort Pickens ordered its stoppage ; the order not being obeyed, on the next trip, the first gun fired by Fort Pickens during the Rebellion reverberated over the waters of the Gulf. The shot tore a hole through the bow of the tug, and she was badly disabled. When Pensacola was abandoned by the rebels the little steamer was left to its fate, that of destruction. After remaining at Troy for a short time, Mr. Dunham went to Philadelphia, and in the winter of 1861-62 built a tug boat, and brought her to Chicago via the New York and Erie Canal and the lake, and then made this city his permanent home. Mr. Dunham was married on January 8, 1868, to Miss Mary N. Brown, at Ashtabula, Ohio. They have had three children, one deceased. The living children are Robert and Ella. Mr. Dunham is a member of Cleveland Lodge, No. 211, A.F. & A.M., the Historical Society, the Citizens' Association, and a member of other organizations.
ALFRED BOOTH, senior member of the firm of A. Booth & Sons, is a son of Benjamin and Margaret Booth, and was born in Glastonbury, England, on February 14, 1828. He received a thorough education. In his twentieth year, he came to this country and, during 1849-50, engaged in farming near Kenosha, Wis. He then came to this city and entered the vegetable and fish trade in the North and State-street markets. In 1851, he established himself in the oyster and fish business in the Garnett Building, at the corner of State and Randolph streets, where he remained for several years, during which time he was associated for one year with Edward Grayson. He conducted a store at the same time at Madison and Dearborn streets, which was subsequently made headquarters. As his business increased, he opened other establishments and packing-houses at Madison and Harrison streets, Sixteenth Street and Indiana Avenue, Michigan Avenue and Randolph Street, etc. As soon as the building he now occupies was erected after the great fire of 1871, he moved into it, and has since made it his headquarters and general office. In 1880, his sons, Alfred B. and William V. succeeded to partnership interests, and the house has since been known under the firm name of A. Booth & Sons. Their producing houses for oysters, fruit and salmon are at Baltimore, Astoria, Ore., and Collinsville, on the Sacramento River, California, and their fish supply principally comes from Monistique and from Escanaba, Mich. At other points they have similar establishments of minor importance than those mentioned. This firm is the most extensive oyster, fish and fruit dealers in the West. Mr. Booth was married in April, 1849, to Miss Isabella Hews, of Chicago. They have four children,--Alfred E., William V., Margaret E. and Marian Alice.
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A selection of marine information and illustrations from this magnificent three volume history of Chicago.