References

Table of Contents



Title Page
The First Propellers at Kingston
Appendix: Log of Propeller Union
References

1. Normand Lafreniere, The Ottawa River Canal System (Studies in Archaeology Architecture and History Ottawa: National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, 1984), pp. 23-25, 33. Over 40 years would pass before these three locks were enlarged.

2. Ibid., pp. 34-36. V. A. George, "The Rideau Corridor: The Effect of a Canal System on a Frontier Region, 1832-1895" (M.A. Thesis, Queen's University, 1972), p. 120. The Government canal was called Vaudreiul.

3. Edward Forbes Bush, Commercial Navigation on the Rideau Canal, 1832-1961 (National Parks & Sites Board, Parks Canada, Environment Canada, 1981), pp. 92-3. Province of Canada, Journals of the Legislative Assembly, 1841, Appendix E.E., sec. D.

4. Chronicle & Gazette (Kingston), 19 Oct. 1839.

5. Morning Courier (Montreal), 28 Oct., 31 Oct. 1839. Gerald J. J. Tulchinsky, The River Barons: Montreal Businessmen and the growth of industry and transportation, 1837-53 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977), p. 45.

6. Ibid., p. 46.

7. Patriot (Toronto), 4 May 1838.

8. Chronicle & Gazette, 26 Sept. 1838 (quoting Brockville Statesman).

9. Ibid., 20 April 1839 (quoting (Brockville Recorder); 9 Oct. 1839.

10. Ibid., 7 March 1840.

11. Ibid., 22 Aug. 1840.

12. H. A. Musham, "Early Great Lakes Steamboats: The First Propellers, 1841-1845" American Neptune, 17 (April 1957): 92-3.

13. William C. Church, The Life of John Ericsson (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1911), p. 107. Later, Ericsson was involved with the Monitor of Civil War fame and the Caloric engine. Bush, Commercial Navigation, pp. 12-13.

14. Province of Canada, Journals of the Legislative Assembly, 1841, Appendix E.E., sec. C.

15. Library and Archives of Canada (LAC), RG 12 Department of Transport, A, Department of Marine, 1, Ship Registers, 1787-1933, v. 175 Port of Montreal, 1846 no. 2.

16. Kingston Herald, 15 June 1841 (quoting Brockville Recorder). Montreal Gazette, 20 May 1841 (quoting British Whig). Chronicle & Gazette, 27 July 1842.

17. Montreal Gazette, 20 May 1841 (quoting British Whig), 12 June, 14 June 1841. Kingston Herald, 15 June 1841 (quoting Brockville Recorder). British Colonist (Toronto), 23 June 1841 (quoting Morning Courier).

18. LAC, RG 43 Department of Railways and Canals, C-1, vols. 1878, 1917, 1950, 1957, 1972. PAC, MG 31, A-10, vol. 30, file 3; vol. 31, file 4.

19. Ibid.

20. When the Governor-General issued the proclamation reuniting the Upper and Lower Canada he signed his name "His Excellency the Right Honourable Charles, Baron Sydenham, of Sydenham, in the County of Kent, and of Toronto in Canada, Governor-General of British North America, and Captain-General and Governor-in-Chief, in and over the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and the Island of Prince Edward, and Vice-Admiral of the same."

21. Montreal Gazette, 15 May 1841.

22. Ibid., 20 March 1841.

23. List of Canadian Patents From the Beginning of the Patent Office, June 1824 to the 31st of August, 1872 (Ottawa: Maclean, Roger & Co., 1882) p. 5. It is noteworthy that some evidence links Walkers' inspiratin to Erisson but the patent refers to F. P. Smith, Ericsson's chief English rival.

24. Ibid.Montreal Gazette, 25 Jan., 12 Aug. 1842.

25. Montreal Transcript, 5 Aug. 1841 (quoting Montreal Herald). See also sources in note 18.

26. LAC, RG 12, A1, vol. 175, 1846 no. 1.

27. Church, Ericsson, pp. 108-9.

28. LAC, MG 31, A-10, vol. 31, file 4. PAC, RG 43, C-1, vols. 1950, 1957. William Nunns, the master of the William Henry, was himself an inventor. See Canadian Patents, p. 5.

29. John M. Mills, Canadian Coastal and Inland Steam Vessels, 1809-1930 (Providence, R.I.: Steamship Historical Society of America, 1979, Supplement 2, 1983).

30. Chronicle & Gazette, 7 April 1841.

31. Ibid., 16 Oct. 1841.

32. St. Catharine's Journal, 25 November 1841. Musham, "Propellers".

33. Chronicle & Gazette, 4 Dec. 1841

34. British Colonist, 28 July 1841 (quoting London Gazette). Montreal Transcript, 17 August 1841 (quoting Kingston News). Montreal Gazette, 24 March 1842.

35. Chronicle & Gazette, 16 April 1842. Montreal Gazette, 4 May 1842. Wm. H. Smith, Smith's Canadian Gazettter comprising Statistical and General Information respecting all Parts of the Upper Province, or Canada West... (Toronto: H. & W. Rowsell, 1846; fac. ed. Coles, 1970), p. 129. Mills, Steam Vessels, supp. 2.

36. Chronicle & Gazette, 4 May, 4 June 1842.

37. Ibid., 28 May 1842 (quoting Cobourg Star).

38. Ibid., 4 Dec. 1841.

39. Buffalo Democrat, 28 Feb. 1855.

40. Register of British Shipping for Inland Waters (Toronto: Geo. E. Thomas & Co., 1854).

41. Chronicle & Gazette, 11 June 1842.

42. Montreal Gazette, 5 May 1842.

43. George, "Rideau Corridor," p. 121.

 


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We would like to thank David Trotter of Underwater Research Associates for the photographs of the wreck of the propeller GOLIATH. GOLIATH was an excellent example of the first generation of Great Lakes ships equipped with John Ericsson's propeller, launched in 1846 and lost in an explosion in 1848.

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