Chapter 41
Table of Contents

Title Page
1 Introductory
2 Geological
3 Poetry of the Lakes
4 Description
5 The Aborigines
6 French Discovery and occupation
7 Story of La Salle and the Griffin
8 Struggle for Possession
9 Under English Rule
10 Beginnings of Lake Commerce
11 War of 1812
12 War of 1812, Continued
13 War of 1812, Concluded
14 Growth of Traffic
Commerce Through St. Mary's Canals
15 Early Navigation on Lake Superior
16 The Convention of 1847
17 A Half Century Ago
18 Lake Canals
19 Lake Canals, Concluded
20 Harbors
21 Lighthouses
22 Life Saving Service
23 Development of Lake Vessels
24 The Lake Carriers
25 The Sailor
26 Navigation
27 Lumber Traffic
28 Grain Traffic
29 Coal Traffic
30 Iron Ore and Iron Industries
31 Miscellaneous
33 CHRONOLOGY.The Beginnings
33 After the War of 1812
34 1821-1830
35 1831-1840
36 1841-1850
37 1851-1860
38 1861-1870
39 1871-1880
40 1881-1890
41 1891-1898
42 List of Lake Vessels
Table of Illustrations


Fatal Collision of the Albany and Philadelphia. - The steel steamer Albany of the Western Transit Company and the iron steamer Philadelphia of the Anchor line collided on Lake Huron off Point aux Barques early on the morning of November 7, in a dense fog. Both vessels went down and twenty-four lives were lost. The Philadelphia caught the Albany just forward of No. 2 gangway, smashing in the steel plates and pushing her nose several feet into the Albany's body. The Philadelphia's nose was smashed flat, but for a few minutes after backing away seemed to make but little water. The Philadelphia threw out a line, took the Albany in tow and headed for Point aux Barques, 12 miles distant. The Albany filled rapidly. Within 30 minutes the men took to the yawl, and soon after the Albany went down stern first in 200 feet of water. The Philadelphia took aboard the Albany's crew, and under full steam made for shore. She soon began to settle, and at the same time the wind began to blow stiffly from the north, lifting a choppy sea. Captain Hoff, of the Philadelphia, decided to take to the yawls. Twenty-two men, including Captain Hoff and Capt. A. J. McDonald, of the Albany, and 20 men entered the smaller yawl and 24 men the larger. The former made shore without trouble. The latter capsized, and all on board were lost. The fog was so dense that the two boats soon parted after leaving the sinking steamer. Eleven bodies, all wearing life preservers, were recovered, and the missing boat was found bottom up.

Loss of the Eddy. -- The total loss with all hands of the stanch well- informed schooner Newell A. Eddy, Captain Barton, at the Lake Huron entrance to the straits, was one of the most serious losses for this season. The stern of the Eddy was washed up near Bois Blanc light. During the life of this storm, which did not blow itself out for several days, 23 vessels were victims of its violence, 12 stranding, four foundering, three disabled, four damaged in hull, two by collision. Had Lake Superior been open to navigation there would no doubt have been other serious losses to add to that terrible storm.

Destructive October Gale. -- The northwest gale that prevailed over the lakes on October 14 and 15 was the most destructive to life and property that had been experienced for many years, the gale registering as high as 60 miles an hour. A careful record places the loss of life at 41; two vessels were totally wrecked and 29 stranded. The steamer Dean Richmond, valued at $115,000, foundered off Dunkirk, Lake Erie, Capt. G. W. Stoddard, Chief Engineer Evans and 13 others going down with her. The steamer Wocoken, valued at $65,000, foundered on Lake Erie. Capt. Albert Meswald, who was in command, Michael Hinekelman, chief engineer, and a crew of twelve found watery graves. Captain Meswald was part owner. He had enlisted and served in a Michigan regiment during the war of the Rebellion, and three years after the close of the war he began sailing the Genesee Chief, owned by Capt. S.B. Grummond, of Detroit. His wife is a sister of Captains John and Alfred Mitchell, of Cleveland.

The schooner Minnehaha, valued at $48,000, stranded at Onekena. Captain Parker, who was sailing her, was the only survivor out of a crew of seven.

The schooner Annie Sherwood went ashore waterlogged 30 miles above White Fish Point, Lake Superior, and Capt. Louis Guthrie, of Chicago, and one seaman perished from exposure.

The schooner Pelican, Capt. Barney Gray, foundered off Ashtabula in about eight fathoms of water May 16, taking down with her the mate and three seamen. The schooner R. J. Gibbs also foundered while riding at anchor off Bar Point, Lake Erie. The crew was rescued by the steamer Iron Chief. She was built in Vermilion by Squires in 1855.

The Canadian steamer Byron Trerice was destroyed by fire at Leamington September 12, with a loss of three lives. The Trerice had been plying on the Cleveland-Rondeau route, and put in at Leamington for shelter.

Curious World's Fair Visitors. -- An interesting event of 1893 was the arrival of three Spanish caravels, the Santa Maria, the Pinta and the Nina, constructed in Spain in close imitation of the Spanish fleet in which Christopher Columbus, four centuries earlier, had made his first and successful voyage of discovery to America. These antique models were manned in Spain and crossed the ocean in safety. They were among the most interesting spectacles at the World's Fair, and are now passing into decay in the lagoons at Jackson Park, Chicago.

Another curious foreign arrival in 1893 was the little Viking, a Scandinavian craft, of ancient build, which won unbounded admiration at the World's Fair, and then with the typical restlessness of the old Norse Kings left the strange waters of the Great Lakes and returned to the Fatherland.

Statistics. -- During the season 53 vessels passed out of existence, involving a loss of tonnage of 24,258, valued at $1,040,000; the partial losses, $1,072,180; making a total of $2,112,588.

Of the casualities 59 occurred on Lake Erie; 33 on Lake Huron; 10 on Lake Superior; 12 on Lake Michigan; 4 on Lake Ontario; and 5 on Detroit river.

The total loss of life during the season aggregated 123, against 99 for the previous year. It is notable that of the immense number of passengers carried on the various pleasure boats in commission at Chicago during the World's Fair but one passenger was lost, James M. Cutler, a real-estate dealer of Chicago, who fell overboard from the steamer City of Toledo, near Jackson park.

Other Events of 1893. -- April: Schooner Tuxbury sunk near Turtle Light. Steamer City of Naples collides with and sinks the schooner City of Cheboygan at Lighthouse pier. Schooner Keewaunee wrecked at Racine. Tug Sea Gull burned in the straits of Mackinac. Steamer Ohio severely damaged by a gale on Lake Huron. Barge E. F. Gould waterlogged near West Sister island. Schooner R. B. Hayes foundered off Chicago. Schooner Lumberman capsized off Racine. May: Schooner Vienna wrecked at Manitou beach. Dredge Continental sunk at Conneaut; five men drowned. The barge M. R. Goffe sunk by collision with the schooner Iron Cliff, below Stag island. June: Schooner Corsican sunk by collision with the steamer Corsica off Thunder Bay island. Steamer Arcadia sunk in the Cornwall canal. Tug Osborne burned at the Ottawa river. Steambarge S. C. Clark burned off Port Sanilac. July: Steamer Tom Maytham sunk by collision with rocks at Cedar point. Schooner John Rice capsized off Thunder Bay island. Dredge Lorain foundered at Sandusky. Tug C. C. McDonald burned near Saginaw. Steamer Skater burned at Manistee. August: Barge Oneonta sunk at Cleveland. Steambarge Josephine burned at Johnson's island. Tug Louis Wallace burned at Onekama. Steambarge Mary Pringle burned at Port Huron. Schooner Laura sunk on Lake Ontario. Tug Annie Laurie burned at the Sault. Steambarge Oneida burned on Lake Erie. Steambarge Ellida sunk at Duluth by collision with the steamer Lucille. Tug O. Wilcox foundered on Lake Huron. Barge McDougall waterlogged off Erie. The Jennie Mathews, H. J. Mills and William Wheeler lost on Lake Ontario. September: Steamer Arctic sunk off White Rock. Schooner L. D. Bullock stranded at Braddock's Point; abandoned. Barge Huron sunk near Cardinal, Ontario. Schooner Hattie Earl wrecked near Michigan City, Ind. Barge Michigan foundered on Lake Superior. Barge Samuel Bolton wreck near Richmondville on Lake Huron. Schooner D. R. Martin waterlogged at Milwaukee. Steamyacht Tallahoosa burned off Long river. Schooner Margaret A. Muir foundered off Ahnapee. Tug Mystic burned at Ransom's Landing. Schooner Louisa E. Glade sunk at Manitowoc. Tug Maggie Carrell burned at West Superior. October: Schooner Windsor wrecked at Cana island reef. Schooner David Stewart foundered at Pigeon bay. Steamer Ida M. Torrent burned at Cross Village, Mich. Tug Acme foundered near Black River. Steambarge S. C. Clark burned on Lake Huron; sold for $205. Schooner George wrecked at Pictured Rocks. Schooner Amboy wrecked off Buffalo. Schooner Riverside lost on Lake Erie. Schooner C. B. Benson lost in Gravelly bay. November: Steamer Burlington sunk near Sand Beach. Steamer C. B. Lockwood sunk by collision with the E. A. Nicholson at the Lime Kilns; valued at $130,000. Steambarge Lowell burned at Port Huron. Tug Day capsized near Toledo. Tug M. I. Cummings burned at Cape Vincent. Tug George Douglas burned off Griffith island. Tug Beebe burned to the water's edge at Put-in-Bay and sunk. December: Tug W. R. Crowell foundered near Michigan City. Steamer Waldo A. Avery burned at the Straits. Steamer City of Concord burned at Toledo. Steamer Mascotte burned at her dock at New Baltimore.


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Some of the transcription work was also done by Brendon Baillod, who maintains an excellent guide to Great Lakes Shipwreck Research.