1. Wm. Canniff, History of the Settlement of Upper Canada, (Ontario,) with Special Reference to the Bay Quinte (Toronto: Dudley & Burns, 1869). Henry Scadding, Toronto of Old: Collections and Recollections Illustrative of the Early Settlement and Social Life of the Capital of Ontario (Toronto: Adam, Stevenson & Co., 1873). Capt. James Van Cleve, "Reminiscences of the Early period of Sailing Vessels and Steam Boats on Lake Ontario With a History of the Introduction of the Propeller on the Lakes and other Historical Incidents with Illustrations," (MS, Oswego City Clerk, c1877). J. Ross Robertson, Landmarks of Toronto: A Collection of Historical Sketches of the Old Town of York from 1792 until 1833, and of Toronto from 1834 to  (Toronto: J. Ross Robertson, 1894-1914). E.A. Cruikshank, "Notes of the History of Shipbuilding and Navigation on Lake Ontario up to the time of the Launching of the Steamship Frontenac, at Ernesttown, Ontario, 7th September, 1816," Ontario Historical Society Papers & Records 23(1926): 33-44. Edwin E. Horsey, "The Gildersleeves of Kingston: Their Activities, 1816-1930," (MS, Queen's University Archives, 1942). R.A. Preston, "The History of the Port of Kingston: Growth, 1673-1847," Ontario History, 46(1954): 201-11.
4. National Archives of Canada (NAC), Colonial Office Transcripts, MG 11, Q Series, v. 141, pt. 1, Naval Establishments, Survey of the Lakes 1816, 77-79, EWCR Owen to John Wilson Croker, no. 75, 28 Oct. 1815. See also Richard F. Palmer, "Ontario: First Steamboat on the Great Lakes?", FreshWatervol. 2, no. 1 (Summer 1987): 20- 27.
10. NAC, MG11, Q Series, v. 141, pt. 1, pp. 80-82, Minutes, Meeting of the Merchants of Kingston. TRUE BRITON, Kingston Gazette, 30 Mar. 1816. All monitary references are to Halifax Currency unless Sterling is specified. Typically, £1 Halifax Currency equalled $4.00 and £1 Sterling equalled $4.44. A.B. McCullough, "Currency Conversion in British North America, 1760-1900," Archivaria, 16(1983): 92.
13. Kathryn M. Bindon, "Kingston: A social history, 1785-1830," (Ph.D. diss., Queen's University, 1979). W.D. Reid, "Johan Jost Herkimer, U.E., and His Family", Ontario Historical Society Papers & Records, 31(1936): 215-27. Note that for clarity, I have standardized the family name as Herchmer.
14. Canniff, 601 quoting Henry Finkle. In addition to some of the names I have listed below, Finkle added Joseph Forsyth, Yeomans and Marsh. Forsyth died in 1813. Finkle also comments that the investors included "all the principal men except the Cartwright family." The Cartwrights should be excused, given the fact that the head of the family died in the summer of 1815 and his will wasn't probated until the following spring. His eldest surviving son was 16 that year. "Probated Wills of Persons Prominent in the Public Affairs of Early Upper Canada," Ontario Historical Society Papers & Records, 24(1927): 390-400. Upper Canada Gazette & U.E. Loyalist (York), 10 June 1826. Although if it were true, one would expect Finkle to make note of it, there is no mention of his mother's participation in the ownership of the Frontenac. This "participation" would appear to be an overenthusiastic interpretation of Horsey's "clever businesswoman" who "made arrangements with contractors" (p. 9) by Anna G. Young, Great Lakes Saga: the influence of one family on the development of Canadian Shipping on the Great Lakes, 1816-1931 (Owen Sound: Richardson, Bond & Wright, 1965), 11.
16. Edith G. Firth, The Town of York, 1815-1834: A Further Collection of Documents of Early Toronto, Ontario Series, no. 8) Toronto: Champlain Society for the Government of Ontario, 1966), 39-40. Archives of Ontario (AO), Ms 78 Macaulay Papers, John Strachan to John Macaulay, 29 Nov. 1823. AO, MU 1726, Alexander Hamilton Letterbook, Alexander Hamilton to George H. Markland, 21 Dec. 1827.
31. Ibid., 601-2. Neither Teabout or Smith are listed among Eckford's apprentices in Phyllis Dekay Wheelock, "Henry Eckford (1775-1832): an American Shipbuilder," American Neptune, 8(July 1947): 181. In some accounts, Henry Gildersleeve emerges as the master shipwright for the Frontenac, (Van Cleve, 37) while others give the credit for directing the last phase of the work. (Young, 13) But Gildersleeve's brother-in-law, Henry Finkle, claimed little more than that he had "assisted to finish off the Frontenac." (Canniff, 606)
36. Barlow Cumberland, A Century of Sail and Steam on the Niagara River (Toronto: Musson Book Co., 1913), 19. George A. Cuthbertson, Freshwater: A History and a Narrative of the Great Lakes (Toronto: Macmillan, 1931), 216.
39. BRL, Boulton & Watt Collection, Office Letter Books, Boulton & Watt to Gillespie, Gerrard & Co., 10 June 1816; Boulton & Watt to Wm Hodgson & Co., 16 May 1815. Regarding Leys, see Boulton & Watt to Gillespie, Gerrard & Co., 21 May, 23 May, 30 May, 3 June and 10 June 1816.
47. Subsequent lists of the management committee include: AO, MU 2103 Miscellaneous Collection, 1819, #3 (Virtually the same ad appears in Kingston Chronicle, 5 Feb. 1819). Tenth Report, 47-48. David John Smith appears in the ad calling the meeting to sell the Frontenac, Kingston Chronicle, 26 Nov. 1824.
48. Ninth Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of Ontario (Toronto: King's Printer, 1913), 186-87. When on their behalf, Thomas Ridout introduced a bill to exclude foreign steamboats, part of its declared intent was to incorporate the proprietors.
52. Ninth Report, 486. Tenth Report, 47-48, 90. The calculation of tonnage duties at 3d. per ton on 700 tons works out to approximately £9. On every circuit of the lakes the Frontenac made four entries: Kingston, Niagara and twice at York. This meant that the proprietors spent £36 a round trip in tonnage duties (with wharfage fees on top of that). If the Frontenac made two trips a month in a six month navigation season, she would pay £432 in lighthouse tonnage duties. If she made the same trip every 10 days, she would pay £648. To put this in perspective, the duties had built two lighthouses, at Niagara (burned during the war) and at York. It would be 1828 before another was built on False Ducks for £546! At this rate the Frontenac could have been building one lighthouse a year. It is small wonder that the False Ducks commissioners included two men closely associated with the steamer. Edward F. Bush, "The Canadian Lighthouse," Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History, no. 9 (Ottawa: National Historic parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, 1974), 64. In 1818 the Collector of Customs at York started entering the Frontenac at 150 tons. Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library (MTRL), William Allan Papers, (S123) Account Book, Collector of Customs, 1815-1830.
75. Kingston Chronicle and Gazette, 22 Nov. 1843. (My thanks to John Mills for pointing out this reference) In justice to the proprietors of the Frontenac, both the Car of Commerce and the Malsham, the available precedents on the lower St. Lawrence, were designed with similiar horse power/tonnage ratios.
84. Canniff, 604. Kingston Gazette, 16 Dec. 1817, 28 Apr. 1818. Canniff indicates that the engine was built by Ward at Montreal. John Dod Ward had not yet set up his foundry at Montreal, but it is possible that the engine was built by he or his family in the New York area.
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