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Notes

Table of Contents



Title Page
Author's Note:
Introduction
Origins
Design
Construction
Table 1: Estimated Cost per Ton of Early Canadian Great Lakes Steamboats
Management
Operation
Competition and Profitability
Sale
Conclusions
Notes
Table of Illustrations
Index

1. Wm. Canniff, History of the Settlement of Upper Canada, (Ontario,) with Special Reference to the Bay Quinte (Toronto: Dudley & Burns, 1869). Henry Scadding, Toronto of Old: Collections and Recollections Illustrative of the Early Settlement and Social Life of the Capital of Ontario (Toronto: Adam, Stevenson & Co., 1873). Capt. James Van Cleve, "Reminiscences of the Early period of Sailing Vessels and Steam Boats on Lake Ontario With a History of the Introduction of the Propeller on the Lakes and other Historical Incidents with Illustrations," (MS, Oswego City Clerk, c1877). J. Ross Robertson, Landmarks of Toronto: A Collection of Historical Sketches of the Old Town of York from 1792 until 1833, and of Toronto from 1834 to [1914] (Toronto: J. Ross Robertson, 1894-1914). E.A. Cruikshank, "Notes of the History of Shipbuilding and Navigation on Lake Ontario up to the time of the Launching of the Steamship Frontenac, at Ernesttown, Ontario, 7th September, 1816," Ontario Historical Society Papers & Records 23(1926): 33-44. Edwin E. Horsey, "The Gildersleeves of Kingston: Their Activities, 1816-1930," (MS, Queen's University Archives, 1942). R.A. Preston, "The History of the Port of Kingston: Growth, 1673-1847," Ontario History, 46(1954): 201-11.

2. H.A. Musham, "Early Great Lakes Steamboats: The Ontario and the Frontenac," American Neptune 3(1943): 333-44.

3. HONESTUS, Kingston Gazette, 13 Apr. 1816.

4. National Archives of Canada (NAC), Colonial Office Transcripts, MG 11, Q Series, v. 141, pt. 1, Naval Establishments, Survey of the Lakes 1816, 77-79, EWCR Owen to John Wilson Croker, no. 75, 28 Oct. 1815. See also Richard F. Palmer, "Ontario: First Steamboat on the Great Lakes?", FreshWatervol. 2, no. 1 (Summer 1987): 20- 27.

5. C. Winton-Clare, "A Shipbuilder's War," Mariner's Mirror, 29 (1943): . See also R.A. Preston, "The Fate of Kingston's Warships," Historic Kingston 1 (1952): 3-14.

6. NAC, MG11, Q Series, v. 141, pt. 1, EW Owen to John Wilson Croker, 30 June 1815, Enclosure "River St. Lawrence and Cataraqui," p. 35.

7. Robert Gourlay, Statistical Account of Upper Canada, Carleton Library no. 75 (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1974), 237, 240, 244, 286-90.

8. NAC, MG11, Q Series, v. 141, pt. 1, pp. 77-79, EWCR Owen to John Wilson Croker, 28 Oct. 1815.

9. HONESTUS, Kingston Gazette, 13 Apr. 1816.

10. NAC, MG11, Q Series, v. 141, pt. 1, pp. 80-82, Minutes, Meeting of the Merchants of Kingston. TRUE BRITON, Kingston Gazette, 30 Mar. 1816. All monitary references are to Halifax Currency unless Sterling is specified. Typically, 1 Halifax Currency equalled $4.00 and 1 Sterling equalled $4.44. A.B. McCullough, "Currency Conversion in British North America, 1760-1900," Archivaria, 16(1983): 92.

11. NAC, MG11, Q Series, v. 141, pt. 1, pp. 80-82, Minutes, Meeting of the Merchants of Kingston.

12. Ibid.

13. Kathryn M. Bindon, "Kingston: A social history, 1785-1830," (Ph.D. diss., Queen's University, 1979). W.D. Reid, "Johan Jost Herkimer, U.E., and His Family", Ontario Historical Society Papers & Records, 31(1936): 215-27. Note that for clarity, I have standardized the family name as Herchmer.

14. Canniff, 601 quoting Henry Finkle. In addition to some of the names I have listed below, Finkle added Joseph Forsyth, Yeomans and Marsh. Forsyth died in 1813. Finkle also comments that the investors included "all the principal men except the Cartwright family." The Cartwrights should be excused, given the fact that the head of the family died in the summer of 1815 and his will wasn't probated until the following spring. His eldest surviving son was 16 that year. "Probated Wills of Persons Prominent in the Public Affairs of Early Upper Canada," Ontario Historical Society Papers & Records, 24(1927): 390-400. Upper Canada Gazette & U.E. Loyalist (York), 10 June 1826. Although if it were true, one would expect Finkle to make note of it, there is no mention of his mother's participation in the ownership of the Frontenac. This "participation" would appear to be an overenthusiastic interpretation of Horsey's "clever businesswoman" who "made arrangements with contractors" (p. 9) by Anna G. Young, Great Lakes Saga: the influence of one family on the development of Canadian Shipping on the Great Lakes, 1816-1931 (Owen Sound: Richardson, Bond & Wright, 1965), 11.

15. NAC, RG 5, A1, v. 30, pp. 14070-72, Memorial of the Merchants of Kingston, 12 Dec. 1816; pp. 31854-56, Petition of sundry Kingston proprietors of the steamboat Frontenac, 20 May 1823.

16. Edith G. Firth, The Town of York, 1815-1834: A Further Collection of Documents of Early Toronto, Ontario Series, no. 8) Toronto: Champlain Society for the Government of Ontario, 1966), 39-40. Archives of Ontario (AO), Ms 78 Macaulay Papers, John Strachan to John Macaulay, 29 Nov. 1823. AO, MU 1726, Alexander Hamilton Letterbook, Alexander Hamilton to George H. Markland, 21 Dec. 1827.

17. HR, Upper Canada Herald (Kingston), 25 April 1837.

18. Van Cleve, 37.

19. Birmingham Reference Library, Archive Department (BRL), Boulton & Watt Collection, Office Letter Books, 39-40, Boulton & Watt to Gillespie Gerrard & Co., January - June 1816.

20. Ibid., Portfolios 1213-14, KPK Reverse.

21. Ibid. This is based on a point by point analysis of all seven drawings in portfolios 1213-14.

22. Ibid., KSC Reverse. George H. Wilson, "The Application of Steam to St. Lawrence Valley Navigation, 1809-1840," ( M.A. Thesis, McGill University, 1961), 50.

23. BRL, Boulton & Watt Collection, Portfolios 1213-14, KSE Reverse

24. Wilson, 262.

25. NAC, RG 5, A1, p. 33677, Jno. Macaulay to ?, 26 Mar. 1824. Kingston Gazette, 24 Sept. 1816. Kingston Chronicle, 10 Dec. 1824.

26. NAC, MG11, Q Series, v. 141, pt. 1, pp. 77-79, EWCR Owen to John Wilson Croker, 28 Oct. 1815.

27. CANDIDUS, Kingston Gazette, 6 Apr. 1816.

28. Canniff, 601-2.

29. Wilson, 8, 34. NAC, RG 8, C Series, v. 735, pp. 147-49, Petition of Geo. Record, 31 Aug. 1815.

30. Canniff, 602.

31. Ibid., 601-2. Neither Teabout or Smith are listed among Eckford's apprentices in Phyllis Dekay Wheelock, "Henry Eckford (1775-1832): an American Shipbuilder," American Neptune, 8(July 1947): 181. In some accounts, Henry Gildersleeve emerges as the master shipwright for the Frontenac, (Van Cleve, 37) while others give the credit for directing the last phase of the work. (Young, 13) But Gildersleeve's brother-in-law, Henry Finkle, claimed little more than that he had "assisted to finish off the Frontenac." (Canniff, 606)

32. Canniff, 601.

33. Ibid. TRUE BRITON, Kingston Gazette, 6 Apr. 1816.

34. Kingston Gazette, 17 Feb. 1816.

35. Ibid., 14 Sept. 1816.

36. Barlow Cumberland, A Century of Sail and Steam on the Niagara River (Toronto: Musson Book Co., 1913), 19. George A. Cuthbertson, Freshwater: A History and a Narrative of the Great Lakes (Toronto: Macmillan, 1931), 216.

37. Kingston Gazette, 21 Sept. 1816.

38. Wilson, 4, 262.

39. BRL, Boulton & Watt Collection, Office Letter Books, Boulton & Watt to Gillespie, Gerrard & Co., 10 June 1816; Boulton & Watt to Wm Hodgson & Co., 16 May 1815. Regarding Leys, see Boulton & Watt to Gillespie, Gerrard & Co., 21 May, 23 May, 30 May, 3 June and 10 June 1816.

40. NAC, MG11, Q Series, v. 141, pt. 1, p. 4, J.W. Croker to Henry Goulburn, 6 July 1816.

41. Kingston Gazette, 14 Sept. 1816.

42. NAC, RG 5, A1, v. 30, pp. 14070-72, Memorial of the Merchants of Kingston, 12 Dec. 1816. NAC, RG 16, A1, v. 133, Kingston 1816, Robt Hall to Governor Gore, 6 Dec. 1816.

43. Kingston Gazette, 24 May 1817.

44. TRUE BRITON, Kingston Gazette, 6 Apr. 1816. Canniff, 602.

45. Firth, 39-40. Tenth Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of Ontario (Toronto: King's Printer, 1914), 47-48.

46. Hugh Richardson, Steam Navigation on Lake Ontario (York: J. Carey, 1825), 17.

47. Subsequent lists of the management committee include: AO, MU 2103 Miscellaneous Collection, 1819, #3 (Virtually the same ad appears in Kingston Chronicle, 5 Feb. 1819). Tenth Report, 47-48. David John Smith appears in the ad calling the meeting to sell the Frontenac, Kingston Chronicle, 26 Nov. 1824.

48. Ninth Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of Ontario (Toronto: King's Printer, 1913), 186-87. When on their behalf, Thomas Ridout introduced a bill to exclude foreign steamboats, part of its declared intent was to incorporate the proprietors.

49. See Palmer.

50. Wilson, 42-47.

51. David Whittet Thompson, "The Great Steamboat Monopolies: Part I, The Mississippi, Part II, The Hudson," American Neptune, 16(1956): 28-40, 270-80.

52. Ninth Report, 486. Tenth Report, 47-48, 90. The calculation of tonnage duties at 3d. per ton on 700 tons works out to approximately 9. On every circuit of the lakes the Frontenac made four entries: Kingston, Niagara and twice at York. This meant that the proprietors spent 36 a round trip in tonnage duties (with wharfage fees on top of that). If the Frontenac made two trips a month in a six month navigation season, she would pay 432 in lighthouse tonnage duties. If she made the same trip every 10 days, she would pay 648. To put this in perspective, the duties had built two lighthouses, at Niagara (burned during the war) and at York. It would be 1828 before another was built on False Ducks for 546! At this rate the Frontenac could have been building one lighthouse a year. It is small wonder that the False Ducks commissioners included two men closely associated with the steamer. Edward F. Bush, "The Canadian Lighthouse," Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History, no. 9 (Ottawa: National Historic parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, 1974), 64. In 1818 the Collector of Customs at York started entering the Frontenac at 150 tons. Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library (MTRL), William Allan Papers, (S123) Account Book, Collector of Customs, 1815-1830.

53. Tenth Report, 352, 371-72, 416. AO, Macaulay Papers, Christopher Hagerman to John Macaulay, 7 Mar., 11 Mar. 1821. Upper Canada Gazette, 8 Mar., 15 Mar., 22 Mar. 1821.

54. NAC, RG 5, A1, pp. 13457-58, John Kirby to Francis Gore, 5 Aug. 1816.

55. See note 44.

56. NAC, RG 5, A1, pp. 31854-55, Petition of Sundry Inhabitants of Kingston Proprietors of the steamboat Frontenac, 20 May 1823.

57. Kingston Gazette, TRUE BRITON, 3 Feb. 1816; CANDIDUS, 10 Feb. 1816.

58. Kingston Gazette, CANDIDUS, 6 Apr. 1816; TRUE BRITON, 13 Apr. 1816. Other pseudonyms included TIMOTHY PEASEBOTTOM, HONESTUS, TICKLE, and JOEL CORN-COB.

59. AO, Macaulay Papers, John Strachan to John Macaulay, 4 Oct. 1821. Also 29 Nov. 1823.

60. HR, Upper Canada Herald, 25 Apr. 1837.

61. A Summer Month: or, Recollections of a visit to the falls of Niagara, and the Lakes (Philadelphia: H.C. Carey and Shea, 1823), 91.

62. Walter Lewis, "James McKenzie," Dictionary of Canadian Biography (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966- ) 6: 469-71

63. Walter Lewis, "John Leys," Dictionary of Canadian Biography (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966- ) 7: 505-6.

64. Scadding, 556.

65. Firth, 39-40.

66. Upper Canada Gazette & U.E. Loyalist, 21 Apr. 1827. Colonial Advocate (York), 2 Aug. 1827.

67. Canniff, 553.

68. MTRL, Allan Papers, (S123) Account book, Collector of Customs, 1815-1830. Last entry at York was 16 June 1817.

69. NAC, RG 5, A1, pp. 38971-73, Petition of AO Petrie, 25 July 1825. Gerald E. Boyce, Historic Hastings (Belleville: Hastings County Council, 1967), 72-73.

70. Ninth Report, 186-87.

71. Kingston Gazette, 24 June 1817.

72. Ibid., 12 Aug., 19 Aug. 1817. Van Cleve, 38. News of this was carried rapidly around the lake by schooner. Upper Canada Gazette, 14 Aug. 1817, with rebuttal in Kingston Gazette, 19 Aug. 1817.

73. Young, 14 quoting Eighty Years' Progress in British North America (Toronto: L. Stebbins, 1863), 139.

74. John Howison, Sketches of Upper Canada (Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1821), 48.

75. Kingston Chronicle and Gazette, 22 Nov. 1843. (My thanks to John Mills for pointing out this reference) In justice to the proprietors of the Frontenac, both the Car of Commerce and the Malsham, the available precedents on the lower St. Lawrence, were designed with similiar horse power/tonnage ratios.

76. Summer Month, 91.

77. Scadding, 79.

78. Summer Month, 91.

79. Howison, 48.

80. Ibid., 53.

81. Horsey, 10. Young, 16-17. Arthur L. Johnson, The Transportation Revolution on Lake Ontario, 1817-1867: Kingston and Ogdensburg," Ontario History 67(1975): 200.

82. CANDIDUS, Kingston Gazette, 6 Apr. 1816.

83. HONESTUS, Ibid., 13 Apr. 1816.

84. Canniff, 604. Kingston Gazette, 16 Dec. 1817, 28 Apr. 1818. Canniff indicates that the engine was built by Ward at Montreal. John Dod Ward had not yet set up his foundry at Montreal, but it is possible that the engine was built by he or his family in the New York area.

85. AO, MU 2103, Miscellaneous Collection, 1819, # 3. Kingston Chronicle, 5 Feb. 1819.

86. Ninth Report, 486.

87. NAC, RG 5, A1, pp. 31854-55, Petition of Sundry Inhabitants of Kingston, proprietors of the steamboat Frontenac, 20 May 1823.

88. Tenth Report, 48.

89. AO, Alexander Hamilton Letterbook, Alexander Hamilton to George H. Markland, 21 Dec. 1827.

90. Colonial Advocate, 5 Aug. 1824. Niagara Gleaner, 21 Aug. 1824.

91. Walter Lewis, "The Steamer Toronto of 1825," FreshWater, 1 (Autumn 1986): 26-29.

92. Kingston Chronicle, 26 Nov., 10 Dec. 1824.

93. Richardson, 17.

94. Kingston Chronicle, 10 Dec. 1824.

95. Ibid., 14 Jan. 1825.

96. This partnership broke up shortly after the wreckers finished with the Frontenac. Colonial Advocate, 8 Nov. 1827.

97. Ibid., 23 May 1825, 20 Apr. 1826. NAC, MG 24, I26, Alexander Hamilton Papers, v. 4, John Hamilton file, John to Robert Hamilton 19 Jan., 21 Apr. 1825.

98. Colonial Advocate, 11 June 1827. Niagara Gleaner, 3 Sept. 1827.

99. Joseph Pickering, Inquiries of an emigrant, new ed. (London: Effingham Wilson, 1831), 99. See also Niagara Gleaner, 17 Sept. 1827.

100. Upper Canada Gazette & U.E. Loyalist, 29 Sept. 1827. Quoted in Montreal Gazette, 8 Oct. 1827.

101. Archives nationales du Quebec, Montreal, CN1-187, Henry Griffin, no. 7531, Contract & Agreement between John Dod Ward & Co. and Robert Hamilton Esq., 9 Nov. 1827.

102. Kingston Chronicle, 20 Aug. 1831 (quoting Montreal Gazette), 22 Oct. 1831 (quoting Boston Traveller).

103. Van Cleve, 38.

 


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