1. The author would like to acknowledge assistance in research from Maurice Smith, Rick Neilson of Kingston, Larry McNally, Steve Salmon, Ken McLeod and Peter Dupuis, Ottawa, Richard Palmer, Tully, N.Y., J.D. Warner-Davies, Birmingham, U.K., C.J. Heap, London, U.K., Eileen Marcil, Quebec, and especially John Mills of Toronto.
3. David S. Landes, The Unbound Prometheus: technological change and industrial development in Western Europe from 1750 to the present, (London: Cambridge University Press, 1969). Dudley Dillard, Economic Development of the North Atlantic Community (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1967), esp. 238-49. T.S. Ashton, The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830 (London: Oxford University Press, 1964), esp. chap. 3.
4. George Rogers Taylor, The Transportation Revolution, 1815-1860 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968). Gerald J.J. Tulchinsky, The River Barons: Montreal businessmen and the growth of industry and transportation, 1837-53 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977).
5. "Steam Revolution" is the phrase used by Michael Bliss in Northern Enterprise: Five Centuries of Canadian Business (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1987), chap. 7. James Thomas Flexner, Steamboats Come True: American Inventors in Action (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1944) is an eloquent assessment of Fulton and his predecessors.
6. George H. Wilson, "The Application of Steam to St. Lawrence Valley Navigation, 1809-1840" (McGill University, M.A. thesis, 1961). Merrill Denison, The Barley and the Stream: the Molson Story (Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1955).
7. Louis C. Hunter, Steamboats on the Western Rivers (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1949). G.W. Hilton, R. Plummer, J. Jobe, The Illustrated History of Paddle Steamers (Lausanne: Edita S.A., 1976). Richard Palmer, "Ontario: First Steamboat on the Great Lakes?" FreshWater, v. 2, n. 1 (Summer 1987): 20-27. Walter Lewis, "The Frontenac: A Reappraisal" in ibid., pp. 28-39.
8. For the relationship between patents and inventive activity in England see H.I. Dutton, The patent system and inventive activity during the industrial revolution, 1750-1852, (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984), esp. chap. 6.
11. Norman R. Ball, "Mind, Heart, and Vision": Professional Engineering in Canada, 1887 to 1987 (Ottawa: National Museum of Science and Technology, 1987). Norman R. Ball, Building Canada: a history of public works (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988). Diane Newell, Technology on the Frontier: Mining in Old Ontario (Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1986). Paul Craven and Tom Traves, "Canadian Railways as Manufacturers, 1850-1880," Canadian Historical Association, Historical Papers (1983), 254-81.
12. T. Ritchie, "Joseph Van Norman, Ironmaster of Upper Canada" Canadian Geographical Journal 77(1968): 46-51. Eric Arthur and Thomas Ritchie, Iron: cast and wrought iron in Canada from the seventeenth century to the present (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982). William Kilbourn, The Elements Combined: A history of the Steel Company of Canada (Toronto: Clarke, Irwin & Co., 1960).
17. The relationship of Newcommen and Watt engines is explored in a wide variety of texts. See, for example, H.W. Dickinson, "The Steam-Engine to 1830" in Charles Singer, et. al., A History of Technology (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958) 4: 173-87. Fuel economy is, of course, a relative thing. Economy at the level which made ocean freighters feasible awaited the compound engine. For a discussion, see Robert Gardiner, ed., The Advent of Steam (Conway's History of the Ship, London: Conway Maritime Press, 1993).
18. Eileen Reid Marcil, The Charley-Man: A History of Wooden Shipbruilding at Quebec, 1763-1893 (Kingston: Quarry Press, 1995). Louis C. Hunter, A History of Industrial Power in the United States, 1780-1930 (Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia for Hagley Museum and Library, 2 vols., 1979-1985), vol. 1. Felicity L. Leung, Grist and Flour Mills in Ontario (History and Archaeology 53, Ottawa: Parks Canada, 1981).
21. Dickinson, "Steam Engine", pp. 185-86. Carroll W. Pursell, Early Stationary Steam Engines in America: A Study in the Migration of a Technology (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1969). p. 13.
22. Hunter, Steamboat, chap. 2. P.R. Hodge, The Steam Engine, its Origin and Gradual Improvement, from the Time of Hero to the present day; as adapted to Manufactures, Locomotion and Navigation (New York: D. Appleton, 1840), pp. 124-26.
24. Hunter, Steamboats, pp. 123-28, 157-58. See also Letter from the Secretary of the Treasury Transmitting, in obedience to a resolution of the House of the 29th of June last, information in relation to Steam Engines, &c., (Dec. 13, 1838), United States, 25th Cong., 3d Sess., H. Doc. 21 (hereafter, US Steam Engine Report). David John Denault, "An Economic Analysis of Steam Boiler Explosions in the Nineteenth-Century United States," (University of Connecticut, Ph.D. Diss. 1993). Gene Erick Salecker, Disaster on the Mississippi: The Sultana Explosion, April 27, 1865 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996), p. 208.
28. "Dod, Daniel" National Cyclopedia of American Biography (New York: James T. White, 1898- ), 24: 359-60 (hereafter NACB). John H. Morrison, History of American Steam Navigation (New York: Stephen Daye Press, 1903, rep. 1958), pp. 39-40. Dod's engine used a wooden connecting rod as well as a wooden beam.
29. Guthrie, Marine Engineering, p. 147. Charles H. Haswell, "Reminiscences of early Marine Steam Engine Construction and Steam Navigation in the United States of America from 1807 to 1850" Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects, 40 (1898): 104.
36. Brockville Recorder, 10 Jan. 1834. Montreal Gazette, 18 Apr. 1837. The Rapid used a compromise, inclined cylinder. Hull, Patent Office, Patent no. 147 (old law), Nathan Sanford, 6 May 1834. (My thanks to Ken McLeod and Peter Dupuis for this reference)
37. These included Morning Star (1830) and Pemedash (1832) on Rice Lake, Sturgeon (1833) on Sturgeon Lake, Sir John Colborne (1832) on Lake Simcoe, Sir Walter Scott (1834) for the Grand River, Thames, 1833) and Cynthia (1833) on the Detroit and Thames Rivers. Thames quickly moved to Lake Erie. (My thanks to John Mills for helping to identify many of these engines.)
38. Builders of engines in the above note include Charles Perry of York and unnamed foundries in Buffalo and Cleveland. No builder was identified for the Sir Walter Scott which blew up on its trials (Hallowell Free Press, 3 Nov. 1834 quoting Montreal Gazette).
39. On the Great Lakes these included Canada (1827), William IV (2 in 1833, 1834), United Kingdom (1833), St. George (2 in 1833, 1834), Great Britain, (1833, 1834, 1836), Cobourg, (2 in 1834), Brockville (1834) and Britannia (1834, 1837).
43. NAC, MG24, D19, Ward Family Papers, LB to John D. Ward, 1 July 1829. Montreal Gazette, 7 Nov. 1837. Not seen by this author was Columbia University, John D. Ward diaries, 5 Aug. 1827-11 Mar. 1830 which reportedly cover his research trip to England and the continent.
48. For estimates on the Great Lakes see Lewis, "Frontenac", p. 36. This calculation used the tonnage estimates of John Hamilton (Chronicle & Gazette, 22 Nov. 1843) which, while seriously flawed, have the advantage of internal consistency.
54. Ibid., pp. 159-61, Robert Hamilton to ?, 16 Mar.1832. The reference was a rather pointed one to his younger brother and former partner, John, who did get the contract. Ibid., pp. 165-73, 17 Apr. 1832. Robert would later sue John's Niagara agent for slandering the steamboat. Archives of Ontario, (hereafter AO), RG22, Series 390, Box 2, file 10, Niagara District Assizes, Sept. 1834, Hamilton vs. Walters.
59. ANQ-M, Doucet, no. 15070, 31 Jan. 1828. Wilson, "Application", pp. 48, 233-34. Walter Lewis, "Leys, John" in Dictionary of Canadian Biography (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966- ), 7: 505-6. (hereafter DCB) Montreal Gazette, 5 June 1832.
60. NAC, MG28, III, 57, v. 19, f. 17., 14 Sept. 1822, quoted in Wilson, "Application", p. 127. See also contracts for William Annesley (£47.10/h.p. ANQ-M, JB Lindsay, no. 42, 13 May 1824) and Hercules, (£45/h.p. NAC, MG24, D19, pp. 78-83, Articles of Agreement [3 Feb. 1823])
62. NAC, MG31, A10, Andrew Merilees Coll. v. 33, f. 19, Agreement July 1831; v. 37, f. 8, Drennan & Graham to Robert Hamilton, 6 Nov. 1831, 7 June 1832. NAC, MG24, I26, Alexander Hamilton Papers, v. 4, Drennan & Graham to Robert Hamilton, 13 Oct., 2 Nov. 1831, 18 Feb., 6 Apr., 11 Apr., 26 Apr. 1832. Chronicle and Gazette, 27 Dec. 1834, 3 Oct. 1835.
63. Contracts for placing used engines include ANQ-M, Griffin, no. 7225, 3 May 1825 (John Molson); Doucet, no. 22241, 12 Feb 1835 (Toronto); Griffin, no. 7531, 9 Nov. 1827 (Alciope). See also AO, RG22, Series 390, Box 3, file 5, pp. 255-62, Home District Assizes, 1836, Sheldon, Dutcher & Andruss vs. Wm Chisholm (Oakville).
65. BPL, Boulton & Watt Collection, Engine Book 243, 4 Mar. 1812, Engine Book 244, 14 May 1817, 16 Mar. 1820, Engine Book 258, p. 185, 20 May 1816. My thanks to J.D. Warner-Davies, principal archivist at BPL.
70. H. Philip Spratt, "The Marine Steam-Engine" in Singer, Technology, 5: 145-6. See Guthrie, Marine Engineering, pp. 67-68 for the Maudslay's contributions to machine shop equipment. Information on the Quebec and Lauzon supplied by the National Museum of Science and Industry, London, U.K.
72. NAC, MG28, III, 57, v. 10, f. 41, #1092, Hy. Wood to John Molson, 11 June 1817. Lewis, "Frontenac", p. 32. For a guess of the cost of transport from England to Kingston, see Kingston Gazette, 30 Mar. 1816, letter of TRUE BRITON.
85. NAC, MG28, III, 57, v. 34, f. 1, Agreement of John Bennet and John Molson, 3 Feb. 1812. This contract was renewed twice at the rate of 230 per annum, and finally expired in April of 1819. A further one year engagement to the Molsons ran for the 1821 season at 180. ANQ-M, Griffin, no. 942, 25 Apr. 1815; Griffin, no. 1698, 18 Jan. 1817; Griffin, no. 3448, 26 Jan. 1821.
86. The origins of Lott Briggs are unclear, but in 1819 he had done some blacksmith's work for Molsons. (NAC, MG28, III, 57, v. 65, p. 254). Scott Burt may well have been related to the Samuel Burt who had worked on the Ontario with John Dod Ward. (Letter of L.B. Ward, 26 Dec. 1889 with enclosures in Capt. James Van Cleve, "Reminiscences of the Early Period of Sailing Vessels and Steam Boats on Lake Ontario..." (MS. City of Oswego Clerk's Office, [mfm, Kingston: Marine Museum of the Great Lakes], inserted after p. 66) In the fall of 1819, John Dod Ward attempted to recruit an "S. Burt" to come up to Montreal. (NAC, MG24, D19, John D. to Silas Ward, 3 Oct. 4 Nov. 1819) Whether related to the Burt of Ward's acquaintance or not, Scott Burt, like John Bennet was hired by the Molsons for the 1821 season (ANQ-M, Griffin, no. 3487, 26 Jan. 1821).
87. NAC, MG28, III, 57, v. 65, p. 397. ANQ-M, Lukin, no. 73, 31 Jan. 1821. Ward's contempt for this practice is evident in a letter to his father (NAC, MG24, D19, John D. to Silas Ward, 30 Oct. 1821). Nevertheless he also purchased steamboat stock as a marketing technique. Ibid., 9 Aug. 1819. Wilson, "Application," p. 84, n. 1. NAC, MG24, D93, William Annesley, file 2, Ledger 1824, fo. 8.
100. See note 25. See also US., Steam Engine report, pp. 100, 404. Also relevant, but unavailable to the author, is John D. Ward, An account of the steamboat controversy between citizens of New York and citizens of New Jersey from 1811 to 1824, originating in the asserted claim of New York to the exclusive jurisdiction over all the waters between the two states (Newark, N.J.: Daily Advertiser, 1863).
102. Although it sailed much of the distance, the Savannah is indisputedly the first vessel equipped with steam engines to cross the Atlantic. Frank O. Braynard, S.S. Savannah: The Elegant Steam Ship (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 1963), pp. 44-45. "Dod", NACB, 24: 360. Ward may also have build engines for Charlotte, while still in the U.S. See Lewis, "Frontenac", p. 36 and note 84.
114. Philip W. Coombe, "James P. Allaire: Marine Engine Builder," Steamboat Bill, 43 (1986): 265. See also Philip W. Coombe, "Life and Times of James P. Allaire: Early Founder and Marine Engine Builder," (Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1991).
116. Ward letter in Van Cleve, "Reminiscences", p. 66. Clyde A. Sanders and Dudley C. Gould, History Cast in Metal: The Founders of North America (Cast Metal Institute, 1976), p. 257. Longworth's American Almanac, New York Register and City Directory (New York: Thomas Longworth, 1839), p. 684. Ibid., (1841), pp. 738-39. Jacob Abbott, "The Novelty Works with Some Description of the Machinery and the Processes Employed in the Construction of Marine Steam-Engines of the Largest Class,"Harper's New Monthly Magazine, 2 (May 1851): 721-34.
117. ANQ-M, Doucet, no. 25796, 31 Dec. 1838. "Ward, Lebbeus Baldwin", NCAB, 1:246. The Wards still maintained a membership in the partnership in 1842. ANQ-M, Doucet, no. 28001, 31 Dec. 1842. Gerald J.J. Tulchinsky, "Brush, George" DCB, 11: 120-21.
119. Tulchinsky, River Barons, pp. 110-11. Robert R. Brown, "The Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad" Bulletin of the Railway and Locomotive Historical Society, (1936), pp. 20-21. (A special thanks to Larry McNally for this reference.)
125. William D. Reid, Death Notices of Ontario (Lambertville, N.J.: Hunterdon House, 1980), p. 117 quoting Christian Guardian, 7 Jan. 1835. Colonial Advocate, 11 Apr. 1833. While across the border in Lockport (near Buffalo), Fred Dutcher got married (Canadian Courant, 7 July 1830) tending to confirm the suspicion that the Dutchers were Americans.
126. Captain Charles McIntosh, who lived just up Yonge Street from the foundry, was the leading shareholder in the Cobourg, and the foundries of Montreal were fully booked that season. George Walton, The City of Toronto and the Home District Commercial Directory and Register with Almanack and Calendar for 1837, (Toronto: T. Dalton and W.J. Coates, 1836), pp. 32, 41. From the perspective of the Van Normans, Sheldon & Dutcher probably represented a client with tremendous potential and an unreliable track record. They would have wanted access to the York market for their products, but some means of controlling that account. The Van Normans were Americans who operated Upper Canada's most successful bog ironworks at Normandale. (Norman N. Ball, "Van Norman, Joseph", DCB, 11: 897-98). They employed Elijah Leonard sr. (Christopher Alfred Andreae, "Leonard, Elijah" DCB, 8:499-500) who may have been related to Carleton Leonard, the senior clerk at Sheldon & Dutcher. The Van Norman's were never mentioned in any of the evidence given at Sheldon & Dutcher's many trials
127. K. Lewis, "Steam Engine Builders", p. 22. Montreal Gazette, 7 May 1833 quoting York Courier. AO, RG22, Ser. 390, box 22, file 1, Sheldon et. al. vs. Smith et. al., Home District 1834, p. 48; Box 3, file 4, Sheldon et. al. v. Bethune et. al., p. 352.
128. AO, RG22, Series 390, Box 22, file 1, Home Dist. Assizes, Apr. 1834, pp. 43-52, Sheldon et. al. v. Smith et. al.; Oct. 1835, pp. 207-22, Bethune et. al. vs. Ketchum et. al.; Box 3, file 4, Oct. 1835, pp. 335-52, W. B. Sheldon et. al. v. J. G. Bethune et. al.
129. K. Lewis, "Steam-Engine Builders", p. 38. W. Lewis, "John By", p. 33. AO, RG22, Series 390, Box 3, file 5, Home Dist. Assizes, Mar. - Apr. 1836, pp. 255-62, Sheldon, Dutcher & Andruss v. Wm. Chisholm.
137. Hulburt registered five Canadian patents for ploughs and churns between 1850 and 1867. List of Canadian Patents from the Beginning of the Patent Office, June 1824 to the 31st of August 1872 (Ottawa: MacLean, Roger & Co., 1882) 1st Series, nos. 297, 371, 568, 1070, 2233.
142. NAC, RG1, E3, Upper Canada State Papers, v. 56, pp. 129-31, Petition of Niagara Harbour & Dock Co., 2 Dec. 1833. Hodge, Steam Engine, p. 11 gives credit to Adam Hall, "long the foreman at the West Point Foundry" for the notion of using high pressure steam by cutting it off in mid-stroke.
144. Ben Forster, A Conjunction of Interest: Business, Politics and Tariffs, 1825-1879 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1986), p. 17. Upper Canada, Statutes, 4 Geo. IV, (1824) chap. 1, sec. 1 (20%) NAC, RG16, A1, v.1, Amherstburg Customs Returns, 25 Oct. 1833 (Thames engine at 15%)
145. Brockville Recorder, 29 Mar. 1832 quoting Montreal Gazette. In fact, one report claimed Wards were supplying the engines.(Canadian Courant, 29 Sept. 1832). Of LB Ward's marriage see ibid., 9 Sept. 1829. The Pocket Register for the City of Hartford. (Hartford: Benjamin A. Norton, 1825), pp. 19, 21. Samuel Ward's second marriage was to a girl from Hartford (Montreal Gazette, 10 Apr. 1834). US Steam Engine Report, p. 347. Copeland made a number of high pressure marine engine sales in Georgia (Ibid., p. 274-5, 286).
148. US Steam Engine Report, pp. 38, 339. University of Vermont, Bailey/Howe Library, Special Collections, Champlain Transportation Company, "A", correspondence of Ward & Co. to Champlain Trans. Co., 10 Mar. 1836 - 27 Oct. 1837.
154. Bennet & Henderson built the only two high pressure marine engines used below Montreal before 1838. Ibid. They used John D. Douglas's patent high pressure boiler. Wilson, "Application", p. 171., note 6.
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